Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis.

Chronic stress-induced hippocampal vulnerability: the glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis.

Conrad CD. Rev Neurosci. 2008.

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Abstract

“The hippocampus, a limbic structure important in learning and memory, is particularly sensitive to chronic stress and to glucocorticoids. While glucocorticoids are essential for an effective stress response, their oversecretion was originally hypothesized to contribute to age-related hippocampal degeneration. However, conflicting findings were reported on whether prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids endangered the hippocampus and whether the primate hippocampus even responded to glucocorticoids as the rodent hippocampus did. This review discusses the seemingly inconsistent findings about the effects of elevated and prolonged glucocorticoids on hippocampal health and proposes that a chronic stress history, which includes repeated elevation of glucocorticoids, may make the hippocampus vulnerable to potential injury. Studies are described to show that chronic stress or prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids can compromise the hippocampus by producing dendritic retraction, a reversible form of plasticity that includes dendritic restructuring without irreversible cell death. Conditions that produce dendritic retraction are hypothesized to make the hippocampus vulnerable to neurotoxic or metabolic challenges. Of particular interest is the finding that the hippocampus can recover from dendritic retraction without any noticeable cell loss. When conditions surrounding dendritic retraction are present, the potential for harm is increased because dendritic retraction may persist for weeks, months or even years, thereby broadening the window of time during which the hippocampus is vulnerable to harm, called the ‘glucocorticoid vulnerability hypothesis’. The relevance of these findings is discussed with regard to conditions exhibiting parallels in hippocampal plasticity, including Cushing’s disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).”

Rewatching The Mission (1986)

Rewatching The Mission (1986)

Incredible soundtrack…music Ennio Morricone.

A lot of people didn’t like this movie.

I watch it every year.

Perhaps I saw something different in it.

People so often want to believe they are helping, and much of the time they “help” for reasons that serve themselves….instead if the actual people they were supposed to be helping….and ruin happens instead.

Perhaps people meddle.

Help is actually helpful when humans slow down enough to ask the group they are thinking requires help… sometimes, even much of the time, what people need from us isn’t the same as what we are willing to give.

Not just in the context of this movie, but in daily life.

This movie does an excellent job of looking at a slice of the Human Condition.

Helping / harming?

Guilt / redemption?

Sharing / pushing?

(This is the “srs for moment” collection…if you no like, just swipe on by.)

Some know exactly what this is, to be raised in it as children and have others know about it.

Some know exactly what this is, to be raised in it as children and have others know about it….and it’s a quiet thing, a shamed silence that happens when police, public workers, teachers, neighbors….they all know.

They all see it.

And the confusion and indecision about what to do.

We know violence has been done and will continue to be done.

How we wished someone would have helped when we were little, small….

The abuse is worse if you, *yourself, get caught “airing dirty laundry” and telling…the telling doesn’t always result in any real help…so please resist the possible knee jerk reaction to “why didn’t the victims/kids say anything….”

If you haven’t been in it, ya just can’t know.

I call and report abuse whenever I see it, whenever I can, and in person at the police department if need be.

How I wish someone would have called for us.

Thank you for who posted this, you know who you are.

I’ve posted about this before.

I’ve posted about this before.

Touch is a loaded thing for people.

Touch (always CONSENSUAL) is extremely important.

Many powerful, even staggering examples of the importance of touch, and the deprived come to my mind…

I know people who have NOT been touched, actually touched for YEARS…*EDIT

Due to a multitude of situations, reasons, turns in life.

Touch is a need.

Mothers and fathers, many women and men, health care professionals, physical therapists, massage therapists, hair stylist, barbers, sex workers, so many people….

The touch deprived population in the USA alone is a growing one, and the results of touch deprivation are serious and alarming.

If ya have a second, please consider reading this…